What Do All These ‘Self’ Words Mean?

The following ‘self’ words are all important in contributing to a growing positive wellbeing and identity – The foundations for life.

To shape a confident IDENTITY, you need to…
To build your EMOTIONAL WELLBEING, through developing a high…
Self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept

~ Also known as self-worth and self-value, self-esteem incorporates feelings of self-worth and value .

~ An overall evaluation of oneself.

~ High self-esteem is having a good self image. Ie. self-esteem is like a mirror where you see your own qualities.

~ Low self-esteem is not realising one’s potential, which translates to poor self-confidence.

~ To develop self-esteem limit negative self-talk, self-criticism and labels. Increase focus on strengths, rather than weaknesses.



~ Belief in one’s self-worth and likelihood in succeeding.


Self esteem is a permanent internal feeling while self efficacy is a feeling that depends upon the performance at hand.



~ Belief in one’s capacity or competence to handle, perform and succeed at tasks.

~ Eg. completing a puzzle, dressing independently, studying. Self-efficacy varies from one situation/activity to another.

~ It builds up as you go on learning and mastering different abilities in life.

~ To encourage self-efficacy skills allow them to make decisions for themselves and include them in decision-making with you.



~ Belief about oneself.

~ Is a factual description of how you perceive yourself, whether it may be true or not.

~ If your perception is distorted, this description may not be an accurate depiction of you, but it IS an accurate statement of what you believe about yourself.

~ People with a good self-esteem and self-efficacy are often able to recognize their limitations without a judgment attached.


It is possible to have low self-esteem and yet have high self-efficacy, often seen with perfectionists.

Ie. Someone may tend to be overly-critical and negative about oneself and yet see themselves as quite capable in certain areas.

For instance, they might see themselves as uninteresting and unlikeable but see themselves as a competent speller.

But the first step you need to take is FINDING YOUR ‘VOICE’, that is, feeling empowered to speak up.

This will heighten your view of yourself, knowing that you can and do make a difference. This empowered voice will show you that your voice is valued. This voice developing your self-worth/esteem (Read above about this concept).


Empowering Children’s, Parents’ and Teachers’ Voices

Being listened to, respected and valued


Building One’s Emotional Wellbeing

High self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept


Shaping Children’s Identity

I accept myself for ‘who I am’

Then we have… Strengthened Foundations


If you want to make a change and clearly know who you are and why you are here,  or if you want to deal with your mental health, or if you just want to know more, contact us.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

What Does Ethical Leadership Look Like? Part 2

How Leaders Can Face and Deal With Challenges Ethically in an Early Childhood  (EC) Context

From Part 1 we discussed how ethical leaders have certain traits such as, character and ethics (which are characteristics of intentional leaders), and who embody three foundational principles of philosophy, passion and vision. Other important leadership roles that were identified, included  the role of ‘steward’ – a role where one takes their vision and made it part of the everyday life.

Time to reflect… Implications for early childhood practitioners (ECPs)

CHARACTERISTIC 1: Two leadership qualities/styles


  • This is reflective of the use of ‘referent power’ (17, p.128) and is characterised by influencing others through personal qualities.
  • A ‘power with’ approach is used which is effective in leading, guiding and motivating others – to empower them to make decisions (2,14,17).

On the other hand, some leaders use the ‘power over’ approach who believe they “… come with knowledge more superior to others because of their position…” (17, p.130).

They exercise and/or believe they have the right to have ‘power over’ their team.

Wilberforce used a ‘POWER WITH’ approach. This reflected ethical leadership where leaders would empower their followers who would hold differing views, interests and needs. As a result, this enabled shared decision-making and ‘voices’ from all stakeholders to be heard which was an important aspect of Wilberforce’s success in leading in politics (14,17).


  • Leaders are seen as motivators through the personal emotional link they have with their employees (2).
  • The emphasis is on the importance of stakeholders communicating differences and disagreements openly and honestly. Leaders promote creativity and “… encourage multiple ways to view a problem or opportunity” (3, p.26).

Wilberforce’s most striking characteristic and rule that he lived by as a leader, was also a characteristic he used to address his challenges…

His ability to see the best in people and build bridges with everyone he met, no matter from what background they were from.

Initially, he thought bridges should be formed only with people who were like-minded. However, upon reflection, Wilberforce found that the best and most effective way forward was to “… work together with philosophical opposites for the greater good (1, p.95).


From reflection of this first issue there is a necessity of ECPs to recognise the importance of all stakeholders in EC settings. Stakeholders are important in terms of developing the organisation’s philosophy, vision and values. They are also important in relation to high quality teaching for the positive development of children.

  • ECPs, in particular leaders, have a responsibility to be ‘WEAVERS’ (16), and to BUILD RELATIONSHIPS with all stakeholders. That is, their team of teachers, families, children and the community.
  • This is because leaders cannot lead by themselves. Instead, it is most effective to do so with and through others(16, p.648).
  • We cannot go forward by ourselves. We need to go hand-in-hand with others as it is a COLLABORATIVE WALK that will enable us to take the next step and next leap.

CHARACTERISTIC 2: Shared ethos characteristic of intentional and pedagogical leadership


As Wilberforce brought together those with differing opinions, values, skills and knowledge this reflected both intentional and pedagogical leadership.

  • When those roles are practiced under a shared organisational ethos only then can differences and diversity be acknowledged and respected (17).
  • This can have positive contributing effects for both internal and external stakeholders, importantly families and children, with long-term effects (17).


  • Ensure that a shared ethos is established in the EC setting so that differences are acknowledged, respected and utilised for the benefit of all stakeholders.
  • In this way, a strengths-based approach is also promoted with stakeholders whereby they are encouraged to see themselves ‘with power’ with a voice. They can then make a difference with the knowledge and skills that they do have, rather than see themselves as powerless and without a voice (3,6,14,17).

However, it goes beyond just the sharing of knowledge. But also ensuring that pedagogical leadership is in place to “… build the capacity of the staff team as curriculum decision-makers” (17, p.95).

  • Building the leadership capacity of stakeholders. In particular, ECPs and families so that they become less dependent on the director and/or other EC leaders. Instead, become INTERDEPENDENT thinkers and decision-makers with each other (14).
  • For effective school leadership it is very important for leaders to ensure that stakeholders know that they are needed to participate ALL THE TIME – that leaders rely on them, “… rather than just include them when it suits the purposes of the leader” (16, p.651).
  • In this way, ECPs and stakeholders are able to develop trusting two-way relationships, whereby quality care can be realised together (10,12,16).

CHARACTERISTIC 3: Leadership style and strategies

Wilberforce also contributed to the positive acceptance of change and the successful transition to change by adopting a certain type of leadership style, as well as utilising specific strategies that characterise effective EC leaders.


  • This leadership style empowers the team through shared leadership, and collaborative, participative decision-making processes (2,12,14).
  • In particular, during times of change, this style of leadership has been found to have positive outcomes for all stakeholders.
  • This approach is team-oriented, with flexible lines of authority, “… builds on each person’s strengths and interests… and enables [stakeholders] to contribute in ways that match their creativity, skills and capabilities… ” (3, p.26).


  • Give ECPs a ‘voice’.
    • By giving them a ‘voice’, ECPs develop a personal investment to the team through a sense of responsibility (3, 6,13). A ‘voice’ to speak their concerns, interests, needs, wants. As well as a ‘voice’ to speak out their opinions during change.
    • Having a ‘voice’ empowers all stakeholders and has positive outcomes for directors, team leaders, ECPs, families, and most importantly, children.


  • Importance of EC leaders and ECPs to develop cognitive and emotional empathy skills (9).
    • Cognitive empathy skills or perspective-taking skills = Understanding how others see the world.
    • Emotional empathy skills = Feeling how the other person feels, sensing how they feel.


  • Without good listening, you can’t have empathy. Listening is one of the greatest predictors of either leadership failure or success (9). So it is most important to develop ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS.
    • Active listening is characterised by respect.
    • It is done through being involved in the conversation, reflecting feelings, asking open-ended questions, making non-judgemental statements, as well as through summarising and reflecting feelings to show that you understand what you have heard and to seek clarification if needed.


In empowering stakeholders with a ‘voice’ “… teamwork and collaboration can be problematic as it MAKES ASSUMPTIONS. It assumes that everyone has the capacity to and will contribute effectively to the work environment… and to how matters are resolved” (17, p.160).


*** In reality, not everyone will contribute, and will want to contribute to the work environment, solving of problems, and inclusion of changes to the same degree. ***

However, ALL contributions should be accepted as equal. It is not about equal giving, but about equal sacrifice.


  • EC leaders need to recognise and acknowledge, as well as respect ALL contributions from ALL stakeholders.
  • Acknowledge their way to express their ‘voice’ and match them with the most appropriate and effective way to express this ‘voice’. Acknowledge their contribution to the EC setting.
  • Reflect on human resource management (HRM) policies and procedures. Ensuring that ‘soft’ HRM (i.e. expressive/developmental approaches) and ‘hard’ HRM (instrumental/rational approaches) are taken into consideration (17).
  • As a result, people and teams, in addition to motivation and empowerment are values that are promoted for the benefit of ECPs, other stakeholders, and for the ‘greater good’ so they feel safe and supported to contribute to the team and EC setting as a whole.

CHARACTERISTIC 4: Connection with external stakeholders

Passion is often seen in terms of… social justice(5, p.5).

It is through connections with external stakeholders that EC leaders can express this passion.

It is to this idea that a final point is paralleled with Wilberforce and the characteristics of EC leaders. That of HAVING A PASSION and HOLDING A VISION. Wilberforce’s twenty-year long-term vision of ending the slave trade would have been impossible if not first considering the ‘Reformation of Manners’ – his passion for social justice. 

In Wilberforce’s situation, by considering the political and social climate (namely, that England was highly involved in the slave trade), and addressing that goal first, it realigned his vision where it could be placed in a context that was relevant to his community.


  • Politics influence policy, that inevitably will influence social outcomes, including the contexts that both directly and indirectly relate to the ECEC field, EC setting and ECPs. As a result, this will affect families and children.
  • The political arena and political climate also influence EC services directly. When EC leaders stay current and involved in the world of politics they are in a position to be active and more influential in the decisions that are made when changes and improvements are instigated through the political context (11,12).


  • It is important for ECPs, specifically EC leaders to become knowledgeable and aware of things that are happening, specifically in relation to the political side of early childhood.

As theorist Freire said “teaching is a political act” (17, p.21).


To ensure that the vision is lived and breathed in the organiation, it is important for EC leaders to engage in all roles and responsibilities of organisational culture and operational changes (11).

  • This involves keeping the vision in front view where it is kept ‘active’, rather than ‘on the shelf’. That is, rather than having the vision metaphorically and literally ‘put on the shelf’ – in a folder – forgotten among the daily routines, just a concept that was once referred to; the vision needs to be a lived vision – a lived passion, where plans are passionately envisioned and yearning to be accomplished.
    • This involves the need for all stakeholders, particularly ECPs, to be ‘stewards’ ensuring that the vision is lived in the everyday. ‘Stewards’ where everyone works together towards the common good – the vision.

Strategic planning and development, that is, ensuring that the VISION IS ABLE TO BE LIVED AND BREATHED, and to be ACCOMPLISHED at the end of a long journey where everyone is still committed (11).


To ensure that the plan – the vision – is kept alive and achievable in the hearts of all those who are heading towards it…

  • Recognise, ackowledge and celebrate the little accomplishments and milestones with all stakeholders – both individual and group celebrations. This is keeping the vision alive in the ‘present’, rather than wait for the final vision to be accomplished and then holding a big celebration (3, 16,17).
  • For example, celebrating one person’s achievements in a centre newsletter, going out for group dinners when certain milestones or achievements are made.


(1) Belmonte, K. (2007). William Wilberforce: A hero for humanity. Michigan, U.S.A.: Zondervan.
(2) Burnes, B. & By, R. (2012). Leadership and change: The case for greater ethical clarity. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 239-252. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-1088-2
(3) Carr, V., Johnson, L.J., & Corkwell, C. (2009). Principle-centred leadership in early childhood education. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 37(3), 25-32.
(4) Cook, J. (2012). Practicing ethical school leadership. International Journal of Arts and Sciences, 5(7), 161-173.
(5) Davies, B., & Brighouse, T. (2010). Passionate leadership. Management in Education, 24(1), 4-6. doi: 10.1177/0892020609354946
(6) Ebbeck, M., & Waniganayake, M. (2003). Early childhood professionals. Leading today and tomorrow. Eastgardens, NSW: MacLennan and Petty.
(7) Gilley, A., Dixon, P., & Gilley, J.W. (2008). Characterisitics of leadership effectiveness: Implementing change and driving innovation in organisations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(2), 153-169. doi: 10.1002/hrdq.1232
(8) Gini, A., & Green, R.M. (2014). Three characteristics of leadership: Character, stewardship, experience. Business and Society Review, 119(4), 435-446. doi: 10.1111/basr.12040
(9) Goleman, D. (2017). Cognitive vs emotional empathy with Daniel Goleman. Retrieved June 13, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HhVWlLEcshE&feature=youtu.be
(10) Michaelis, B., Stegmaier, R., &Sonntag, K. (2009). Affective commitment to change and innovation implementation behaviour: The role of charismatic leadership and employees’ trust in top management. Journal of Change Management, 9(4), 399-417. doi: 10.1080/14697010903360608
(11) Mosley, P. (2013). Engaging leadership: Administrative ethics. Library Leadership and Management, 28(1), 1-7.
(12) Nupponen, H. (2006). Leadership concepts and theories: Reflections for practice for early childhood directors. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 31(1), 43-50.
(13) Sharif, M., & Scandura, T. (2014). Do perceptions of ethical conduct matter during organisational change? Ethical leadership and employee involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2), 185-196. doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1869-x
(14) Slater, L. (2008). Pathways to building leadership capacity. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 36(1), 55-69. doi:10.1177/1741143207084060
(15) Stamopoulos, E. (2012). Reframing early childhood leadership. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(2), 42-48.
(16) Stone-Johnson, C. (2014). Responsible leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(4), 645-674. doi: 10.1177/0013161X13510004
(17) Waniganayake, M., Cheeseman, S., Fenech, M., Hadley, F., & Shepherd W. (2012). Leadership: Contexts and complexities in early childhood education. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

Partnering with Families and Children

‘Family Stories’ – Understanding These ‘Stories’ to Support Wellbeing

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The social-emotional wellbeing of children has a major impact on overall growth and development, including academic skills. Most importantly, children’s developing self-esteem and confidence influences the development of a positive and secure sense-of-self and identity, which contributes to their wellbeing (11,23).

The Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) and the National Quality Framework (NQF) have both acknowledged the importance of a positive social-emotional wellbeing. They emphasise the role teachers have and in  developing a collaborative relationship between teachers, children and their family to support the wellbeing of all (7,23).

‘Family Stories’

To work with families effectively and build collaborative partnerships ‘FAMILY STORIES’ need to be acknowledged and respected – their voices need to be shared and heard.

‘Family stories’ include experiences in varying contexts (such as in the home, cultural/religious places) in interaction with various family members, friends and others. It also includes family experiences in professional intervention (such as speech therapy) or medical contexts.

Understanding these ‘family stories’ widens and informs teachers’ knowledge and understanding of contextual issues and factors that could be influencing the family and children (10). In turn, this informs teacher practices that can support children in developing a secure and positive emotional development. As a result, supporting both children’s and the family’s wellbeing and mental health.

The Effect of Labels and Stigma – Importance of Collaborative Partneships

Partnerships that focus on interpersonal relationships and the idea of interdependence creates more positive, trusting and effective relationships (24). This has been found to lead to families being more involved in their children’s education, which results in both the positive wellbeing of children and their family (7,23).

Unfortunately, experiencing mental health issues, whether by children or their family, can lead to labels being applied. This can then result in stigma being formed in various contexts and in different relationships including informally (among society, friends and family) and in more formal contexts (such as in early childhood services) (5,9).

Even more, labels and stigma have been found to hinder families from seeking help – one of the reasons for about a quarter of families not seeking professional intervention (1,5,9). A finding that impacts immediate and future development and wellbeing.

Teachers have an important role in assisting to reconstruct labels and stigmas as they become the bridge for families to connect them to professional or medical support, while also addressing these issues through play and discussion during the day with the children.

Reflecting on Professional Intervention Practices and How it Informs Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices

Taking research around oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a focus for reflection around social-emotional wellbeing, we can also reflect on how this research can inform teachers’ beliefs and practices.

Findings from various ODD intervention studies (17,19) have focused around access and utilisation of services, among other areas. It was found that there were multiple barriers to service access including the following,

  • Stressors and obstacles (e.g. illness and transportation to the service).
  • Treatment demands (e.g. the length and commitment of treatment at the service).
  • Perceived relevance.
  • Parental and contextual factors (e.g. being a single-parent family, neighbourhood, parenting style, maternal depression).

Bernal et al. (3) agree with these findings, and further supports the emphasis by Lavigne et al. (19)  on the importance of culture and ethnicity, pointing out the necessity to consider and develop culturally sensitive interventions.

  • The main points identified by Bernal was the call for a reflection on the differences in values that the mainstream culture has on already developed interventions.
        • That is, interventions that have been employed to assist families from diverse backgrounds who hold different, and sometimes opposite cultural values, such as interdependence and ‘familialism’ – values that are of high importance and a part of many cultures.
  • When interventions and relationships did not consider various elements, such as language-appropriateness, client-therapist relationship and the importance of the therapist in understanding the values, beliefs and customs families found the intervention ineffective and unsupportive to their needs and goals.

In the same way, when teachers’ relationships with children and families do not consider these cultural elements this has been found to affect the support that families receive and feel that they receive or need. This is because the attitudes that teachers hold will affect how they will engage with and respond to families, and thus the type of support and relationship they develop with families.

However, when teachers take the time to listen to families’ stories and acknowledge, embrace and respect these various cultural elements in their personal interactions, as well as in the program and setting approaches, relationships and collaborative partnerships can be built between families, teachers and early childhood (EC) service.

Implications for Teachers and EC Services

Based on various research of ODD intervention approaches, the following are recommendations for teaching practice and strategies to support children’s social and emotional wellbeing.

* Build relationships with children by getting to know the charisma and character of each child, as well as their strengths, areas of need, dis/likes –  that is, the uniqueness of each child.

        • Consider and include this knowledge of each child when setting up a structured, but flexible routine, which will provide for an environment that is predictable and supportive. This will build the foundation for a partnership that honours and respects the child and the family (2,4,14,18).

*Arrange the environment and provide a program that considers the various interests, skill levels and learning styles of each child.

        • This includes a varied level of challenge and different approaches to learning. In addition, activities that require the use of executive functioning skills (ie. cognitive self-regulation), such as problem-solving and working memory. In this way, children are given opportunities to practice skills that enable them to be aware of their own emotions and how to express them effectively (8,14,16).

*Create environments that positively encourage and acknowledge children for their efforts in relation to all areas, including their efforts in emotional situations.

        • Rather than reprimand or discipline, teachers can use these times as moments to collaboratively work together with children to solve problems they encounter.
        • Take advantage of the ‘teachable moments’. These are moments to develop skills, but also to build strong relationships with the children to contribute to the positive wellbeing (12,13,14,23).
        • Don’t react to behaviour. Instead, be proactive in identifying possible areas children need support in, and walk with children in their need.

*Reconstruct labels and stigma using  Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) (6,20).

        • This enables all children to learn about and respect the different ways they can communicate, and understand how others communicate differently and in various situations and contexts.
        • By learning alternate ways to communicate, such as using Key Word Sign, music and other art forms this creates a sense of community within the class, which is an important strategy that builds relationships and creates a sense of belonging and empowerment (4,7,18).

*Use of ‘bibliotherapy’ that uses literature as a strategy – that is, the story is used as a focal point for learning. In doing so, it allows children to be detached from reality and provides for more open discussion about their own feeling and emotions.

        • They can connect with characters in the story and then apply the  generated alternative responses to their own lives (15,21).
        • From the literature used, children can also use these scenarios for role-play and other imaginative play opportunities where the ‘what-if’ provides a place where they can escape reality and be whatever and whomever they want to be. That is, where they can be control (22). In this way, they extend on their skills, understand their own and others’ emotions, and in the process build their social and emotional wellbeing.

*Support and facilitate joint decision-making with families. This is an important part of supporting children’s social-emotional wellbeing.

        • Have families involved in developing the program. This will result in positive outcomes for the collaborative nature of the partnership and for their child in also being more involved in the decision-making process of the program (4).
        • Invite families to share their talents and interests, such as art, music and sports to create a sense of community where children and families are likely to feel more open and welcome to participate and engage in the EC service and in their child’s education. This in turn builds more collaborative relationships between families and teachers.



(1) Allday, R.A., Duhon, G.J., Blackburn-Ellis, S., & Van Dyke, J.L. (2011). The biasing effects of labels on direct observation by preservice teachers. Teacher Education & Special Education, 34(1), 52-58.

(2) Bagdi, A., & Vacca, J. (2005). Supporting early childhood social-emotional wellbeing: The building blocks for early learning and school success. Early Childhood Education Journal 33(3), 145-150.

(3) Bernal, G., & Saez-Santiago, E. (2006). Culturally centred psychosocial interventions. Journal of Community Psychology,34(2), 121-132.

(4) Commonwealth of Australia (CoA). (2012a). Kids matter early childhood component 1: Creating a sense of community. Literature view.

(5) Commonwealth of Australia (CoA). (2012b). Kids matter early childhood component 4: Helping children who are experiencing mental health difficulties. Literature view.

(6) Cress, C.J., & Marving, C.A. (2003). Common questions about AAC services in early intervention. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 19(4), 254-272.

(7) Department of Education, Employment & Workplace Relations (DEEWR). (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia.

(8) Dunsmore, J.C., Booker, J.A., & Ollendick, T.H. (2013). Parental emotion coaching and child emotion regulation as protective factors for children with oppositional defiant disorder. Social Development, 22(3), 444-466.

(9) Graham, A., Phelps, R., Maddison, C., & Fitzgerald, R. (2011). Supporting children’s mental health in schools: Teacher views. Teachers and Teaching: Theory & Practice, 17(4), 479-496.

(10) Grace, R. (2013). Developmental disability. In J. Bowes & R. Grace (Eds.), Children families and communities: Contexts and consequences (4th ed., pp.39-57). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

(11) Green, B.L., Malsch, A.M., Kothari, B.H., Busse, J., & Brennan, E. (2012). An intervention to increase early childhood staff capacity for promoting children’s social-emotional development in preschool settings. Early Childhood Education, 40(2), 123-132.

(12) Greene, R.W., Ablon, J.S., & Goring, J.C. (2003). A transactional model of oppositional behaviour: Underpinnings of the collaborative problem solving approach. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55(1), 67-75.

(13) Greene, R., Doyle, A. (1999). Toward a transactional conceptualisation of oppositional defiant disorder: Implications for assessment and treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2(3), 129-148.

(14) Hemmeter, M.L., Osttrosky, M., & Fox, L. (2006). Social and emotional foundations for early learning: A conceptual model for intervention. School Psychology Review, 35(4), 583-601.

(15) Iaquinta, A., & Hipsky, S. (2006). Practical bibliotherapy strategies for the inclusive elementary classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(3), 209-213.

(16) Katz, L., & Windecker-Nelson, B. (2004). Parental meta-emotion philosophy in families with conduct-problem children: Links with peer relations.

(17) Koerting, J., Smith, E., Knowles, M., Latter, S., McCann, D., Thompson, M., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2013). Barriers to, and facilitators of, parenting programmes for childhood behaviour problems: A qualitative synthesis of sutides of parents’ and professionals’ perceptions. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(11), 653-670.

(18) Lanza, H.I., & Drabick, D.A.G. (2011). Family routine moderates the relation between child impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(1), 83-94.

(19) Lavigne, J.V., Lebailly, S.A., Gouze, K.R., Binns, H.J., Keller, J., & Pate, L. (2010). Predictors and correlates of completing behavioural parental training for the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder in paediatric primary care. Behaviour Therapy, 41(2), 198-211.

(20) Orsati, F.T., & Causton-Theoharis, J. (2013). Challenging control: Inclusive teachers’ and teaching assistants’ discourse on students with challenging behaviour. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(5), 507-525.

(21) Santos, R.M., Fettig, A., & Shaffer, L. (2012). Helping families connect early literacy with social-emotional development. Young Children, 67(2), 88-93.

(22) Steeves, P. (2006). Sliding doors – Opening our world. Equity & Excellence in Education, 39, 105-114.

(23) Temple, E., & Emmett, S. (2013). Promoting the development of children’s emotional and social wellbeing in early childhood settings: How can we enhance the capability of educators to fulfil role expectations? Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(1), 66-72.

(24) Williams, T.T., Sanchez, B., & Hunnell, J. (2011). Aligning theory and practice: Understanding school-family partnerships at an inner-city high school. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(5), 689-697.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

Why Talk? – How You Can Improve Self-Regulation Skills

Talking and the Link with Self-Regulation Skills… That Empowers Children’s Voice

Self-Regulation Skills….

Self-regulation skills are an important developmental skill that has an accumulating influence and effect on various areas of children’s development, including their self-esteem and self-worth, which builds their social-emotional wellbeing and self-identity.

By empowering children with their voice through facilitating intentional talk and conversational opportunities, this stimulates their growth of self-regulatory skills. It also supports their literacy and language development, among other developmental areas.

The Importance of Intentional Talk and Conversations


~ When children utilise expressive/verbal language skills, they learn about sentence structure, meaning of words in context, turn-taking in conversation and pragmatics (3).

      • These skills are the foundation of other language forms and development, including reading and writing.
      • The best way to learn these skills is through talking, particularly intentional and conversational talk.

~ When children have higher emotional self-regulatory skills, this allows them to understand societal rules and behaviour, which leads them to monitoring their own actions (1).

      • This takes children to the level of internalising their self-regulation, which is what we want for all children’s self-regulation skills to reach.
      • However, before reaching the point they can internalise their self-regulation, children are externally regulating their emotions (2).
      • This means they need adult support to help them to self-regulate (2).
          • Teachers can facilitate this area of development through various means such as the following strategies.


Engage WITH children in the following experiences:

~ Narrative and play literacy experiences, combined with drama elements for extension. Eg. improvisation, storytelling and puppetry.

~ Sociodramatic play with teachers and peers.

~ Process drama

      • Teachers use a teacher-in-role (TIR) technique to begin a drama/sociodramatic experience. They adopt a submissive role, then during the experience they work alongside the children – questioning, encouraging, developing and/or steering the drama while remaining in-role.
      • E.g. The teacher could be the new fire-fighter en-route to an emergency with the ‘expert’ children fire-fighters.

~ Ask open-ended, thought-provoking / inquiry-based questions, rather than close-ended questions.


INITIATE conversations and/or ENGAGE IN conversations with children.

~ At mealtimes – Have conversations about what they are eating and extend on it by talking about what they like to eat. Other topics to talk about that go beyond the present include, what they enjoyed doing during the day, what they did yesterday or what they will do over the weekend, and how’s their day going (reflecting on their feelings and thoughts of the day).

~ When children need a break, because they are getting a bit too energetic, break up the day with some ‘quiet time’.

      • ‘Quiet time’ is a time where children can get into small groups in a relaxed mood/setting, and have little conversations – recalling past events, predicting future events (such as what they will do tomorrow or on their planned holiday) and/or narrating imagined stories to each other.
So why all this talking? What’s really taking place?

When Children Talk Beyond Their Immediate Context They…

~ Develop ‘decontextualised language’. That is, they talk about and explain events in the past and future, which allows them to wonder and imagine about ideas.

~ Develop their verbal language skills and increase their vocabulary.

~ Develop skills that will contribute later to their writing, both for creative and more formal purposes.

~ When children narrate stories and love to have ‘chats’, they also develop more self-confidence as they learn more social skills and grow in their social-emotional skills and wellbeing (3).

~ Use higher-level thinking skills such as, suggestions and prediction as they answer open-ended questions posed to them. This sparks curiosity that contributes to their cognitive development (4).

When Teachers Have Conversations & Talk With Children… (3)

~ Teachers can model language, including grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary.

~ Teachers can model self-regulatory processing skills.

~ Children learn empathy as they see others have different thoughts, feelings and experiences than themselves.

~ Children develop a sense of belonging and being as they develop trusting relationships with adults and peers through the conversations they have with each other. This all contributes to more self-confidence and positive social-emotional wellbeing.

As a result, children are empowered with their voice! They use their voice/words to speak out, and in doing so, are empowered and realise that their voice can and has the right to be listened to and respected by both their peers and adults.


To read more about how to use language as a means to promote self-regulatory skills through other areas in the program, how it supports the growth in other areas of development, and to know more benefits beyond those listed here, refer to the reading by:

(3) Test J.E., Cunningham, D.D., & Lee, A.C. (2010). Talking with young children: How teachers encourage learning. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 38(3), 3-14. From: http://southernearlychildhood.org/upload/pdf/Talking_With_Young_Children.pdf



(1) Willis, E., & Dinehart, L.H. (2014). Contemplative practices in early childhood: Implications for self-regulation skills and school readiness. Early Child Development and Care, 184(4),487-499. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2013.804069

(2) Bodrova & Leong, 2007; Dawson & Guare, 2010, as cited in Willis & Dinehart (2014).

(4) A study by Weitzman & Greenberg, 2002, as cited in Test, Cunningham, & Lee (2010).

© Tirzah Lim 2017

What are Self-Regulation Skills?

Self-Regulation Skills and the Link with Social-Emotional Wellbeing

What the research says…

The importance of social-emotional development has been clearly established, especially in recent research with the emphasis on social-emotional health and wellbeing (6,11,12). There is now also an awareness of the link between social-emotional development and self-regulation skills. Thus, there has been an increase in research in this area, including a focus on the effects of these two areas of development on school readiness and early academic achievement (2,3,12,15).

As a result of these findings, it has been acknowledged that early development and support of these regulatory processes, or commonly referred to as self-regulation skills (including the development of behavioural, cognitive/executive functioning and emotional self-regulation skills) are of great importance.

It has also been noted that the development of self-regulatory skills best begins during the early childhood years, particularly at home with family. This is because family are the closest and most influential factor in children’s lives (4,12,15).

However, it has only been in the last ten years that research has really focused on the importance of the development of self-regulation and importantly in interaction with those beyond the family context, in particular within early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, compared to a primary school settings (as most past research have concentrated on). Examples of primary school studies included those cited by Mortensen et al. (2015), (including, Mashburn et al., 2010; Rudasill et al., 2009; Sabol et al., 2012), as well as other studies cited by Rudasill et al. (2016), (such as Hamre et al., 2001; O’ Connor, 2010; Rudasill, 2011).


As the preschool years are the peak time that regulatory processes develop and are crucial for foundational skills for children’s development (5,17), research has looked into this area more closely. Consequently, researchers have started to investigate potential protective factors in the ECEC context, including preschools and long day centres. Furthermore, studies have placed particular emphasis on populations that are at-risk due to individual and/or broader contextual factors.

There are three main types of factors within the ECEC context that have been found to positively and effectively influence the development of regulatory processes in the preschool years, protective factors that ECEC contexts can easily tailor into their classroom. These protective factors have been found to have correlated benefits to all children – children from positive and less positive backgrounds – that is, children having experienced more at-risk contextual factors.




The first main factor that was identified to be influential in an ECEC context was teacher quality, but what this actually included was somewhat unclear and undefined. So to clearly understand what teacher quality actually was required further analysis of studies.

The following child-centred beliefs = factors of teacher quality:

  • Making curriculum and classroom decision, including having authoritative leadership and organisational structure,  whilst promoting autonomy among children. As well as teaching through sensitive interactions and caring relationships (10).
  • This correlated to growing self-regualtion, namely behavioural self-regulation (10).



Though academic outcomes could not directly be linked to child-centred beliefs and practices, there was an indirect relationship between those practices. This was a result of increased self-regulatory processes, and as such, this furthered skills in literacy and maths (10).

Curriculum decisions was another area of teacher quality. Willis et al. (2014) pointed out that children firstly learn to externally regulate their emotions through the help of others in the context of ECEC settings such as, through sociodramatic play experiences.

  • Rather than use more internal skills, which they would use when they got more skillful, it was proposed that through sociodramatic play children would be able to learn to externally regulate their emotions through scaffolded experiences with a more experienced teacher or peer to model and facilitate emotional self-regulation (18).

Additionally, through sociodramatic play…

  • Behaviour would itself be regulated by the ‘role’ they adopted, while also being regulated by others.
  • Within this safe ‘pretend’ world of scenarios there were no serious consequences to making the incorrect response. There were instead given opportunities to try again with the same or different strategies till they got it correct, and in doing so, refine their range of self-regulatory skills.

Curriculum decisions, another area of teacher quality.

Inclusion of active play was another important curriculum decision that had an influential effect. In the study by Becker et al. (2014) they had participants from Head Start preschools (who were preschool groups characterised as high-risk including children who have disabilities and physical delays, and who catered for children from low income families). Though this was a small sample, findings from the study were important in regards to the participants of the study and purpose.

  • Becker et al. (2014) found that the inclusion of active play in the everyday curriculum improved the self-regulatory skills of children, particularly children who came from a high-risk background, as described above.
  • They also found that there was a link between more active play and better self-regulation, in that children also showed higher literacy and maths skills, which was an indirect effect of using their self-regulatory processing skills obtained through the medium of active play.

It was significant to note the importance of curriculum decisions for individual needs, particularly for those who were more likely to have disabilities and physical delays. It was also important to know what factors were more likely to help and improve their skills.



Children’s most basic human LEARNING needs

  • Include collaborative learning, giving the child autonomy, and promoting a sense of belonging and competence.
  • Another area of child-centred practices and beliefs.

These concepts are all related to the issue of learning that takes place IN INTERACTION with others and the learning context (7,18).

When this type of learning was promoted, children’s basic human LEARNING needs were met, which meant lowered stress levels and less need to use emotion regulation. Overall, resulting in increased self-regulatory skills (7).

Learning that takes place IN INTERACTION with others and the learning context… meets children’s basic human LEARNING needs… resulting in increased self-regulatory skills


A second major factor that was identified to be influential in an ECEC context was engagement. Engagement with teachers, in the classroom, as well as in class tasks. However, a key factor that was important to consider alongside this issue was classroom climate/environment.


The study by Williford et al. (2013b) found that children who were more engaged in class tasks were more positively engaged with teachers and this was correlated to an increase in task orientation.

  • They also found that despite children being engaged in more negativity in the classroom, controlled emotional regulatory processing behaviours were related to positive engagement with teachers.

Another study by Williford et al. (2013a) added that in correlation with higher engagement in the classroom and with class tasks, this was related to greater gains in self-regulation.

  • There was also a relationship between the quality of teacher interactions in the classroom and inhibitory control, along with an increase in receptive vocabulary.
  • As a whole, these findings were related to better school readiness skills.

An environment is characterised by the relationships formed between teachers and children, which then influences children’s engagement in the classroom (3).

But how are these relationships supported? How is engagement heightened?

Through establishing the right….



Related to this second factor of engagement is the key factor of classroom climate/environment in relation to how emotionally and organisationally supportive the environment is.


In a study undertaken by Cadima et al. (2016) with a population of socially disadvantaged children, it was found that closer teacher-child relationships had a correlation with higher self-regulation.

  • A finding was that it was not just closer individualised teacher-child relationships that helped self-regulation. It was ALSO necessary to consider the quality of support provided by the classroom environment – that is, the climate of the learning environment.

The study by Choi et al (2016) found similar findings when they looked at cognitive regulation/executive function (i.e., skills including planning, reflection and independence), specifically focusing on inhibitory control (i.e., skills such as delaying gratification and restraining impulses).

  • The population of this study was based on children who were characterised by behaviour and emotion that were more negative, in particular, having lower/poorer inhibitory control.
  • They found that children who came with lower/poorer inhibitory control benefited from emotionally supportive and well-organised classrooms.

  • Interestingly, children from this group also made greater gains and improvement in inhibitory control than children who began and were on a normal trajectory of regulatory processes development.
  • Therefore, initial child inhibitory control was not a factor in determining their trajectory.
  • The key was teacher support, which enabled negative trajectories to be overturned and instead lead children to improved inhibitory control.

Inhibitory control and cognitive regulation were determined by both teacher-child interactions AND environmental climate established within the classroom (4).

Rudasill et al. (2016) added to the mounting research, with findings concerning effortful control (i.e. self-regulation relating to temperament), teacher-child relationships, and teacher-child conflict.

  • They found that emotional support assisted with low effortful control.
  • While the reverse was found too. That is, negative emotional support limited and made inhibitory control (i.e., skills such as delaying gratification and restraining impulses) worse, which also increased teacher-child conflict.

Basing discussion around teaching practices and teacher-child interactions as well as how children are the active recipients of teacher interactions, there were further findings regarding emotional support of children with and without behavioural problems and teacher-child conflict (13).

  • This suggested that children are ‘active’ in their own ecological context as a ‘child’/individual. In the same way teachers are ‘active’ in their ecological context as professionals in the ‘ECEC setting’ .
    • When considering the mesosystem – that is, the interconnection between the different contexts, this meant that within the ECEC context children and teachers had bi-directional effects on one another. Specfically in relation to this discussion, when positive emotional support was provided negative class behaviour decreased, which included teacher-child conflict.


The third and last main influential factor in an ECEC context was teacher-child relationships. The following studies build on the research by Cadima et al. (2016) and Rudasill et al. (2016), which were specifically related to the second protective factor.

Mortensen et al. (2015) discussed findings by various studies, including the following areas.

  • How children’s self-regulation related to social-emotional competence.
  • How engagement in class and being emotionally supported by teachers related back to high-quality teachers and high-quality child relationships with others.
  • The various studies in this area also found correlations to academic outcomes, namely literacy and maths outcomes.

In other studies, it was found that higher teacher-child relationships were correlated with higher self-regulation, as well as with higher maths skills in both preschool and kindergarten.

  • This was because the skills that enabled children to excel in understanding and solving maths problems (i.e., skills related to the learning of maths) such as working memory, inhibitory skills, and cognitive flexibility were the same skills associated with developing behavioural and cognitive self-regulation (2).

On another academic level, there were significant findings in relation to the impact of teacher-child relationships and behaviour regulation on the effects of language development, specifically grammar skills.

In this study, they found that despite having high teacher-child conflict, a child’s grammar skills still increased (15). However, it was their level of behavioural regulatory skills that related to the amount of grammar gained.

  • That is, more controlled behaviour regulation correlated with higher grammar skills.
  • While lower behaviour regulation correlated with lower grammar gain.
  • On the other hand, children with a weak (versus low) behaviour regulation had further risk for delay in language development. This was because teacher-child relationships that were characterised as having high-conflict, compounded experiences for children that impacted more areas of language development in addition to their grammar skills.

An additional study by Graziano et al. (2015) followed a group of children with externalising behavioural problems who were reported to have more difficulties with school readiness skills at preschool and difficulties when beginning school.

  • They concluded from their findings that that the defining factor was the quality of relationships – the positive and closer teacher-child relationships.
  • This correlated with executive function/cognitive regulation skills, teacher-rated school readiness and later school achievement.


  • Skills that assist in school readiness and academic achievement such as, working memory, planning, and independence are the same skills required to develop self-regulatory processes.
  • More importantly, Graziano et al. (2015) concluded that it was the quality of teacher-child relationships that could act as a protective factor for negative effects of self-regulatory processes.

It is important to note that the various types of factors from the ECEC setting...

  • Did NOT actually raise self-regulation as a whole for children with ‘normally’ developing self-regulatory development or children who had well developed self-regulation skills.
  • Instead, the three identified protective factors assisted in the development of self-regulatory skills and later school achievement. That is, the ECEC setting was another important ecological context in the life of children who were at-risk of developing low self-regulation. Not being born ‘at-risk’; but instead because of the interactive factors in their ecological context this affected the trajectory of their development in a less positive way.

As such, there are particular factors that act as protective, influential factors in the ECEC context that can support children to catch-up to their peers. In doing so, when provided with these more positive and effective factors in an ECEC context, children who were at-risk could make even greater gains, overtaking the skills and abilities of their peers who were on a ‘normal’, stable trajectory of self-regulatory development.


The study by Gunzenhauser et al (2015)(9) looked at families from lower versus higher socio-economic status (SES), and discussed some important findings in regards to a mix of the three factors that influence behaviour regulation.

      • Just because children were from higher-SES families did not mean they expanded the growth of their self-regulation or even that they had higher self-regulation.
      • The opposite was also true for children from lower-SES families. That is, just because children were from lower-SES families did not mean they lowered their self-regulation or had lower self-regulation.
      • Children from lower-SES families could still develop self-regulation to the same quality and even high self-regulation, as a positive contributing factor was the ECEC context.
CURRICULUM DECISIONSMore books vs. less books (9)

(Books – a measurement of home educational resources).

Despite being from a lower-SES, children with more books at home related to the support of the development of positive behaviour regulation.

However, some children from lower-SES had less books at home. In these cases the ECEC context became a protective factor by the curriculum decisions that were made. In particular, making books available and reading to children a focal part of the program.

    • This would support the development of children’s varying levels of regulatory processing skills who were also from varying SES backgrounds.
TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIPSIs gender a risk factorin the development of self-regulatory processing skills?(9)

Gender was found not to be a risk factor.

In fact boys who had low processing skills or at-risk of developing low self-regulatory skills when growing up in the context of an at-risk familial environment, actually had a higher rate bouncing back and ‘catching up’ compared to girls.

The key was teacher-child relationships characterised by verbally stimulating non-gender specific socialisation (9).

  • The quality in relationships children developed with their teachers in the ECEC setting became a protective factor for children. A relationship that they may not have established or will develop in the home environment.
  • Even more, when children developed these relationships characterised by this style of verbal socialisation this was found to have a significant impact on the development of children’s self-regulatory processing skills, particularly boys from lower-SES backgrounds(9).

**** REFLECT ****

Are you gender-specific in your verbal socialisation?

Eg: Being more emotionally supportive and verbally stimulating to girls vs. more physically playful with boys.

Empirical studies says that most families are not very aware. However, teachers in ECEC contexts are more aware of their interactions, and provide equal time and verbal stimulation to both boys and girls (Matthew et al., 2014; as cited in Gunzenhauser et al., 2015).


(1) Becker, D.R., McClelland, M.M., Loprinzi P., & Trost, S.G. (2014). Physical activity, self-regulation, and early academic achievement in preschool children. Early Education & Development, 25, 56-70. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2013.780505

(2) Blair, C., & McKinnon, R.D. (2016). Moderating effects of executive functions and the teacher-child relationship on the development of mathematics ability in kindergarten. Learning and Instruction, 41, 85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.10.001

(3) Cadima, J., Verschueren, K., Leal, T., & Guedes, C. (2016). Classroom interactions, dyadic teacher-child relationships, and self-regulation in socially disadvantaged young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 7-17. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-0060-5

(4) Choi, J.Y., Castle, S., Williamson, A.C., Young, E., Worley, L., Long, M., & Horm, D.M. (2016).  Teacher-child interactions and the development of executive function in preschool-age children attending Head Start. Early Education & Development, 27(6), 751-769. doi:10.1080/10409289.2016.1129864

(5) Degol, J.L., & Bachman, H.J. (2015). Preschool teachers’ classroom behavioural socialisation practices and low-income children’s self-regulation skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 31, 89-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresjq.2015.01.002

(6) Denham, S.A., Bassett, H.H., Way, E., Mincic, M., Zinsser, K., & Graling, K. (2012).  Preschoolers’ emotion knowledge: Self-regulatory foundations, and predictions of early school success. Cognition & Emotion, 26(4), 667-679. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2011.602049

(7) Fried, L. (2011). Teaching teachers about emotion regulation in the classroom.  Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(3), 117-127.

(8) Graziano, P.A., Garb, L.R., Ros, R., Hart, K., & Garcia, A. (2015). Executive functioning and school readiness among pre-schoolers with externalising problems: The moderating role of the student-teacher relationship. Early Education & Development, 27(5), 573-589. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2016.1102019

(9) Gunzenhauser, C., & Von Suchodoletz, A. (2015). Boys might catch up, family influences continue: Influences on behavioural self-regulation in children from an affluent region in Germany before school entry. Early Education & Development, 26, 645-662. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2015.1012188

(10) Hur, E., Buettner, C., & Jeon, L. (2015). The association between teachers’ child- centred beliefs and children’s academic achievement: The indirect effect of  children’s behavioural self-regulation. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(2), 309-325. doi: 10.1007/s10566-014-9283-9

(11) Kragh-Muller, G., & Gloeckler, L.R. (2010). What did you learn in school today? The importance of socioemotional development – A comparison of U.S. and Danish child report. Childhood Education, 87(1), 53-61.

(12)Mortensen, J.A., & Barnett, M.A. (2015). Teacher-child interactions in infant/toddler child care and socioemotional development. Early Education & Development, 26(2), 209-229. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2015.985878

(13) Nurmi, J.-E., & Kiuru, N. (2015). Students’ evocative impact on teacher instruction and teacher–child relationships. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 39(5), 445-457. doi: 10.1177/0165025415592514

(14) Rudasill, K.M., Hawley, L., Molfese, V.J., Tu, X., Prokasky, A., & Sirota, K. (2016). Temperament and teacher-child conflict in preschool: The moderating roles of classroom instructional and emotional support. Early Education & Development, 27(7), 859-874. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2016.1156988

(15) Schmitt, M.B., Pentimonti, J.M., & Justice, L.M. (2012). Teacher-child relationships, behaviour regulation, and language gain among at-risk preschoolers. Journal of School Psychology, 50(5), 681-699. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2012.04.003

(16) Williford, A.P., Maier, M.F., Downer, J.T., Pianta, R.C., & Howes, C. (2013a). Understanding how children’s engagement and teachers’ interactions combine to predict school readiness. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 299-309. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2013.05.002

(17) Williford, A., Vick Whitaker, J.E., Vitello, V., & Downer, J. (2013b). Children’s engagement within the preschool classroom and their development of self-regulation. Early Education & Development, 24(2), 162-187. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2011.628270

(18) Willis, E., & Dinehart, L.H. (2014). Contemplative practices in early childhood: Implications for self-regulation skills and school readiness. Early Child Development & Care, 184(4), 487-499. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2013.804069

© Tirzah Lim 2017

What Does Ethical Leadership Look Like? Part 1

How Leaders Can Face and Deal With Challenges Ethically



A man who was a great humanitarian – most commonly remembered for leading the fight against abolishing the slave trade in 1807. Only one of many other humanitarian and philanthropic reforms and deeds he accomplished in his lifetime.

William Wilberforce was a great man of character who emanated characteristics of an early childhood (EC) leader in the way he led through his humanitarian cause. The way he led in regards to change and innovation to address key challenges he encountered as a leader within his world of British politics and Parliament he has much to teach all aspiring to be leaders, and to those who are already leaders, he has even more to challenge and teach them. Even in the early childhood education and care (ECEC) field, Wilberforce can teach and inspire the profession.


William Wilberforce, was a man of GREAT CHARACTER. Wilberforce’s character spoke of great leadership qualities in the way he displayed and exerted his power that made him the successful and influential leader that he became in politics and in his fight for the cause of the abolition of the slave trade.

Leading and using power through CHARACTER AND ETHICS is characteristic of INTENTIONAL LEADERS. These qualities can lead to the empowerment and respect of various stakeholders including, early childhood practitioners (ECPs) and families (8,17).

” ‘Intentional leadership’, builds on the definition of ‘INTENTIONAL TEACHING’ … that involves being deliberate, purposeful and thoughtful in decisions and actions. ‘Intentional teaching’ is the opposite of teaching by rote or continuing with traditions simply because things have ‘always’ been done that way…” (17, p.13).

“Likewise, ‘INTENTIONAL LEADERS’ are educators who engage in ethical practice by implementing leadership responsibilities in positive, purposeful ways. Such leaders demonstrate courage in their decision-making and find ways to collaborate with others to achieve collective goals” (17, p.13).

Wilberforce was involved in societal reforms, namely, ‘The Reformation of Manners’. The Society for the Reformation of Manners began in the 1680s to the early 1700s, which then formed again during the 1780s. It was this second time, that Wilberforce joined the Society and when he stepped into the political arena. It was also this time round that the Society endeavoured to “make goodness fashionable” (1, p.152), as it was at a time when morality and religious leadership were lacking in the community. It is in this example that EC intentional leadership is evident, in particular three of the seven foundational principles (17).

1. Having a PHILOSOPHY to commit to.

  • Embedded in the culture and everyday practices (17).

2. Sharing a PASSION “…to support the potential [of others] …” (17, p.14).

  • Leaders needing to have the passion that inevitably will push the dreams and vision of leaders into becoming reality (5). Wilberforce’s passion was ‘the drive’ that saw his vision become reality 20 years later.
  • A passion that can ensure integrity and ethical decision-making and behaviour, which are all important characteristics of intentional and ethical leaders (3).

3. Having a VISION.

Wilberforce was also an inspiration to others around him with his big vision. As he fought a long arduous journey through campaigns and other public awareness events. This not only made England aware of his cause, but Wilberforce’s reforms were influential and are still recognised overseas. In particular, till this day, Wilberforce is highly esteemed in the United States of America, India and Africa for ending the slave trade.

This is a testament that one person’s vision, persistence and determination can make all the difference… AND is possible to achieve (17).

Wilberforce certainly defined his vision and was a visionary

Keeping his vision in front view during the fight for the abolition of the slave trade to think and act with hope and faith of seeing the impossible.

AND… Ensuring that it did make a difference not only to his immediate world, but also to the millions of slaves around the globe.

facing CHALLENGES AS A LEADER… overcoming challenges by initiating change and innovation

As a shown leader in Parliament and in the political arena, Wilberforce addressed key challenges he encountered.

Despite the challenges, he was true to his cause with a clear vision and “held a strong commitment to a common set of political ideals” (1, p.58).

It was Wilberforce’s vision for the greater and wider purpose of social morality in his community and nation along with his passion and persistence that enabled Wilberforce to keep on fighting. This gave him the drive to overcome any challenge as he initiated change and innovation.

  • A VISIONARY is an important leadership role, which involves seeing things in new and creative ways. Ways in the future that seem impossible to be and achieve in the past (16).
  • LEADING PASSIONATELY is an important aspect of seeing change and innovation, through the role of leadership. It is this passion that helps direct leaders, their vision and purposes, and that ultimately will initiate and drive innovation and change (5,16).
  • ETHICAL LEADERSHIP is vital during times of change and innovation. This is because during times of uncertainty and anxiety, ethical leadership will provide moral support and stability. 


In the late 18th century, political bribery, as well as verbal humiliation and/or attacks to win votes at any cost were often used to get Parliamentary Acts passed. It was a very negative, unethical approach but equally accepted, and even a form utilised by Wilberforce in the earlier years of his political life.

However, it was the ethical nature of the way Wilberforce led that set him apart from other leaders and that enabled him to succeed in Parliament and politics to lead a revolutionary humanitarian change and innovation that had not been seen before in the arena of politics. This not only made an influential impact upon the politics of Britain, but also the people and the nation.

Ethical leadership provided direction (towards the vision) and role modelling – in the new transformational way politics was heading towards. This included, role modelling positive behaviour and attitudes that would assist in the enculturation of the more ethical, moral social reforms that Wilberforce was involved in during his time of leadership for change and innovation (2,4,13).

  • In particular, the first and one of the major reforms that Wilberforce was involved in that changed his attitudes and approach to politics was the cause of the ‘Reformation of Manners’, as he “… believed that true philanthropy could not flourish in an immoral society” (1, p.165). Thus, this set him on his course for change and innovation whereby he and his team “… turned around society and a culture” (1, p.152).
  • Therefore what began as a societal goal (i.e. ‘moral reformation’) for British society, became one of an organisational change to the nature of politics.

In doing so,  Wilberforce embraced another leadership role – the ROLE OF ‘STEWARD’. A role where he took his vision and made it part of the everyday life of politics. This enabled Wilberforce to address and overcome key challenges he encountered (8,16).

  • A ‘steward’ – a leadership role that recognised the “… purpose of their work was for others” and “… for the benefit of others(8, p.439). Rather than for self-serving interests and self-promotion (8).
  • For Wilberforce, as a steward he influenced the broader part of politics in such a way that politics would now be highly influenced by principles that would affect the types of future Acts passed in Parliament, including that of the abolition of the slave trade and inevitably slavery as it would be. This is an example of ‘transformational change‘. A type of change that is key to realising innovation, which is an important aspect of all types of leaders (7).

That is, leaders have the role and responsibility to instigate and promote change – transformational and innovative change.

It assists the successful progression of each of the stakeholders including, the teachers, leaders, and organisation. More importantly, it allows for personal growth, specifically growth in leaders, to overcome challenges encountered with more skill and knowledge (7, 15).


LEADING BY CHARACTER allows leaders to guide their teams with stability and more positively into accepting change with support. This type of leadership supports change when change occurs. Change that often brings with it uncertainty, resistance, and setbacks (13).

Wilberforce’s character was a defining factor as a leader. As he led through his character, in particular, demonstrating humility, trust, honesty and care he demonstrated the characteristics of an ethical leader (2,17). He also effectively gained respect and empowered those of his electorate.

  • In upholding his humility, Wilberforce no longer engaged in verbal humiliation and attacks against his opponents. Instead, he engendered another characteristic – faithfulness – a quality drawing his political opponents to also fight the same humanitarian cause with him rather than against him in the future.
  • By leading with charisma, Wilberforce built trust with his fellow colleagues and opponents, whereby there was a shift in self-serving interests to that of the greater good (2,10). This leadership quality along with leading ethically by character enabled Wilberforce to lead his team and ultimately politics to the embrace of innovation and acceptance of change (8,13,17).

Connections with characteristics of early childhood leaders and practitioners…

To know how you can apply these characteristics in an early childhood context, specifically identifying implications for early childhood practitioners , read part 2 of this article. 

We will discuss four important characteristics that need to be considered to becoming an ethical leader.

Characteristic 1: Two leadership qualities/styles – Leading with charisma, and working with ‘philosophical opposites’.

Characteristic 2: Shared ethos of intentional and pedagogical leadership.

Characteristic 3: Leadership style and strategies – Facilitative non-hierarchical leadership style.

Characteristic 4: Connection with external stakeholders – Understanding the climate of the external environment, and organisational culture and operational changes.



(1) Belmonte, K. (2007). William Wilberforce: A hero for humanity. Michigan, U.S.A.: Zondervan.
(2) Burnes, B. & By, R. (2012). Leadership and change: The case for greater ethical clarity. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 239-252. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-1088-2
(3) Carr, V., Johnson, L.J., & Corkwell, C. (2009). Principle-centred leadership in early childhood education. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 37(3), 25-32.
(4) Cook, J. (2012). Practicing ethical school leadership. International Journal of Arts and Sciences, 5(7), 161-173.
(5) Davies, B., & Brighouse, T. (2010). Passionate leadership. Management in Education, 24(1), 4-6. doi: 10.1177/0892020609354946
(6) Ebbeck, M., & Waniganayake, M. (2003). Early childhood professionals. Leading today and tomorrow. Eastgardens, NSW: MacLennan and Petty.
(7) Gilley, A., Dixon, P., & Gilley, J.W. (2008). Characterisitics of leadership effectiveness: Implementing change and driving innovation in organisations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(2), 153-169. doi: 10.1002/hrdq.1232
(8) Gini, A., & Green, R.M. (2014). Three characteristics of leadership: Character, stewardship, experience. Business and Society Review, 119(4), 435-446. doi: 10.1111/basr.12040
(9) Goleman, D. (2017). Cognitive vs emotional empathy with Daniel Goleman. Retrieved June 13, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HhVWlLEcshE&feature=youtu.be
(10) Michaelis, B., Stegmaier, R., &Sonntag, K. (2009). Affective commitment to change and innovation implementation behaviour: The role of charismatic leadership and employees’ trust in top management. Journal of Change Management, 9(4), 399-417. doi: 10.1080/14697010903360608
(11) Mosley, P. (2013). Engaging leadership: Administrative ethics. Library Leadership and Management, 28(1), 1-7.
(12) Nupponen, H. (2006). Leadership concepts and theories: Reflections for practice for early childhood directors. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 31(1), 43-50.
(13) Sharif, M., & Scandura, T. (2014). Do perceptions of ethical conduct matter during organisational change? Ethical leadership and employee involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2), 185-196. doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1869-x
(14) Slater, L. (2008). Pathways to building leadership capacity. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 36(1), 55-69. doi:10.1177/1741143207084060
(15) Stamopoulos, E. (2012). Reframing early childhood leadership. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(2), 42-48.
(16) Stone-Johnson, C. (2014). Responsible leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(4), 645-674. doi: 10.1177/0013161X13510004
(17) Waniganayake, M., Cheeseman, S., Fenech, M., Hadley, F., & Shepherd W. (2012). Leadership: Contexts and complexities in early childhood education. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

How Does Children’s Behaviour Affect Teachers’ Wellbeing?

The Bi-Directional Link Between Children’s and Teachers’ Wellbeing

From extensive research in brain development, it has been conclusive that early childhood experiences are vital in developing well established children for the future with positive life outcomes. In particular these experiences affect children’s physical health, social and emotional wellbeing later in life (1,4,8).

Even more, the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) and the National Quality Framework (NQF) have acknowledged this position and has placed a focused emphasis on the role early childhood practitioners (ECPs) have in understanding and supporting the development of the social wellbeing of children through the relationships they build with both the child and their family (3).


Children’s mental health issues contribute to ECPs’ own emotional health and wellbeing.

It has been found that mental health issues, in particular oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety and depression are among the most commonly diagnosed mental health conditions in childhood (5,6,7).

In all cases of children’s mental health and wellbeing, it commonly presents itself through behaviour – positive, negative, or even hidden/silent behaviour, which means something.

  • In these cases, it has been found that supporting children in the class who experience more emotional and/or behavioural difficulties, is often aligned to ECPs’ stress levels. In turn, contributing to ECPs’ own emotional wellbeing (4,6).
    • ECP wellbeing has flow on effects in the relationships they form with children, the way they interact with them and react to their behaviour.
    • ECP wellbeing will also have an influence on the relationships they develop with families.

This raises important issues for the early childhood field and for ECPs in understanding their role in supporting the development of positive emotional wellbeing of all children. This includes being equipped with the knowledge of the importance of emotional wellbeing in children’s development. It also involves the responsibility in understanding what ECPs can do to support children and their families/family members who may be experiencing mental health issues.


ECPs have a responsibility to establish partnerships and collaboratively work with families.

In the study undertaken by Williams, Sanchez, and Hunnell (2011), they discuss the positive outcomes when there are partnerships between families and education organisations.

They base their study around the concept of an ecological approach, which emphasises four principles that are also relevant to the early childhood context. Two of the most important and interrelated of these being discussed below: interdependence and interpersonal relationships, both of which are also related to developing partnerships with families.

  • To be able to cater for their present needs and to provide effective learning experiences, is to understand children and their past experiences (2). This entails nurturing and growing interdependent relationships with families. It is when families and teachers work hand-in-hand with the unique knowledge they have of the child from each of their contexts (i.e. the home and early childhood service).
  • Instead of the main reason for conversing with families to be negative feedback, such as discussing problematic issues, challenging behaviour, or mishaps that have occurred during the day; when partnerships are focused on the interpersonal relationship it becomes stronger. As a result, there will be more benefits for all involved .
    • Partnerships that are focused on interpersonal relationships create more positive, trusted, and effective relationships.
    • This leads to families being more involved in their children’s education that works towards inclusive practices, while also supporting teachers.
    • In particular, children’s behaviour was more effectively supported, which in turn reduced teacher stress and supported their emotional-wellbeing.



(1) Brown, W.H. & Conroy, M.A. (2011). Social-emotional competence in young children with developmental delays: Our reflection and vision for the future. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 310-320.

(2) Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR]. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Retrieved from http://education.gov.au/early-yearslearning-framework

(3) Gloeckler, L. & Cassell, J. (2012). Teacher practices with toddlers during social problem solving opportunities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(4), 251-257.

(4) Green, B.L., Malsch, A.M., Kothari, B.H. Busse, J. & Brennan, E. (2012). An intervention to increase early childhood staff capacity for promoting children’s social-emotional development in preschool settings. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(2), 123-132.

(5) Hamilton, S.S. & Armando, J. (2008). Oppositional defiant disorder. American Family Physician, 78(7), 861-866.

(6) Matthys, W., Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J., Schutter, D.J.L.G. & Lochman, J.E. (2012). Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Implications for interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15(3), 234-246.

(7) Nordahl, H.M., Well, A., Olsson, C.A. & Bjerkeset, O. (2010). Association between abnormal psychosocial situations in childhood, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(9), 852-858.

(8) Temple, E. & Emmett, S. (2013). Promoting the development of children’s emotional and social wellbeing in early childhood settings: How can we enhance the capability of educators to fulfil role expectations? Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(1), 66-72.

(9) Williams T.T., Sanchez, B., & Hunnell, J. (2011). Aligning theory and practice: Understanding school-family partnerships at an inner-city high school. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(5), 689-697.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

Taking Care of Teachers’ Emotional Wellbeing

How to Reduce Teacher Stress and Support Children’s Development



To understand the importance of your role as a teacher and leader, you need to see yourself in the mesosystem of a child’s life – that is, in the context of the early childhood (EC) setting.

EC settings along with teachers can either be a ‘protective’ source of support for children or a risk factor that adds to the risks already experienced by children.

To be a support for children, it has been found there are three main protective sources of support in EC settings that have a major positive influence on teacher stress. The reduction in teacher stress influencing, among other areas, class management and behaviour management.

On the other end, teacher stress is also a major contributing factor on children’s self-regulatory skills. When these skills are supported positively and effectively, it has long term effects on early school achievement and success.


Protective Factor 1: Teacher quality that translates to child-centred beliefs

Protective Factor 2: Engagement and Classroom Climate

Protective Factor 3: Teacher-Child Relationships

Protective Factor 1: Teacher quality that translates to child-centred beliefs

  1. Classroom decisions – Collaborative learning and child autonomy.
  2. Curriculum decisions – Promote literacy, intentional talk and conversations, and socio-dramatic play.

Protective Factor 2: Engagement and Classroom Climate

  1. Engagement with teachers, classroom activities, and the class.
  2. Classroom climate – Emotional and organisational support.

Protective Factor 3: Teacher-Child Relationships

  • Is interrelated to the other two factors by influencing and being influenced by teacher quality and child-centred beliefs, as well as engagement and classroom climate.
When supporting children of higher self-regulatory processing skills, this will EMPOWER the ‘voices’ of the children, thereby BUILD a stronger emotional wellbeing, and SHAPE a confident identity.

If you want to know more “Contact Me” and I will email you my powerpoint presentation.

It will explain more about each of the points outlined above, including HOW TO promote and facilitate these practices.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

What Happens When You Empower Your Team With A Voice?

Ethical Leadership and Change

What’s the difference between a manager and a leader?

What’s the difference between leading ethically and unethically?

Why ARE these two concepts important to understand when we want to initiate some type of change?

That is, CHANGE TO  support…

  • The team of teachers to heighten their teaching quality.
  • Children and better understanding their behaviours.
  • Families and stronger collaborative relationships.
  • Yourself to empower your ‘voice’ and support your social-emotional wellbeing.

These are some of the issues that will be discussed in my powerpoint article:

  • Ethical leadership and your choice of the ‘power approach’.
  • Benefits of ethical leadership to team members, such as a stronger socio-emotional wellbeing for all (including for leaders, teachers and children), and an empowerment of everyone’s ‘voice’.
  • Acceptance of change, the culture you develop, wellbeing and the link with the empowerment of ‘voices’.


Who does IT start with?

(‘IT’ = change, improvement, ethical role modelling, transformative leadership, building of emotional wellbeing, empowering of ‘voices’, etc…)

The Director / Manager?

The Teachers / Team?

The Families?


The Community?

If you want to know more, “Contact Me” and I will email you my powerpoint article.

It will explain more about each of the points outlined above and how you can EMPOWER everyone’s ‘voice’.

© Tirzah Lim 2017