Self-esteem and Self-efficacy and How to Build Each One

Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy – The Link With Building Your Mental Health

The following ‘self’ words are all important in contributing to a growing positive wellbeing and identity – The foundations for life.

When you work on your self-esteem and self-efficacy, you are building your socio-emotional wellbeing, that is, your mental health. This all contributes to developing your self-concept– an accurate self-concept.

BUT HOW???? Continue reading…

SELF-ESTEEM 

~ Feelings of self-worth and self-value. 

~ An overall evaluation of oneself. 

~ High self-esteem is having a good self image. Ie. self-esteem is like a mirror where you see your own qualities. 

~ Low self-esteem is not realising your potential, which translates to poor self-confidence.

REFLECT… When you look through the mirror, what qualities do you see? 
REFLECT… Define  your potential? Have you lived up to your potential? What can you do to see your potential being realised?
What you can do to build your self-esteem 

~ Limit negative self-talk, self-criticism and labels. 

~ Increase focus on strengths rather than weaknesses. 

~ Give yourself a break.

~ Practise saying ‘no’. 

~ Look after your physical health. 

REFLECT… Which one/s can you focus on today to build a positive self-esteem?
REFLECT… Which one/s can you use to help someone else build their self-esteem?

Orange needle on Master level on experience levels speedmeter

SELF-EFFICACY

~ Belief in your capacity or competence to handle, perform and succeed at tasks. 

~ Self-efficacy varies from one situation/activity to another. 

~ It builds up as you go on learning and mastering different abilities in life. 

REFLECT… What tasks/situations/activities are you still growing in and learning? Which ones are you going to continue to work on?
REFLECT… Which situations/activities have you mastered? How can you use your mastery to help/support someone else?
What you can do to build your self-efficacy

~ Set some goals that are easier to achieve so you can develop confidence and the belief in your capabilities. 

~ Have other goals that will challenge and stretch you so you will develop your learning and grow in mastery. 

~ Avoid comparisons. Run your own race. Be proud of what you can do and what you have achieved.

REFLECT… What have you achieved thus far in your life – personal, professional?
REFLECT… What is one goal you can set for yourself that can bless someone else and their life?
Make your mental health a priority - unique vector hand drawn inspirational, positive quote for persons suffering from personality disorder and Awareness Month. Phrase for posters, t-shirts, wall art.
Improve your mental health as you focus on building your socio-emotional wellbeing. 
To shape a confident IDENTITY, you need to…
Build your EMOTIONAL WELLBEING, through developing a high…
Self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept

Click here (Part 1 and Part 2) to read more about the importance of building your self-concept and how you can improve your mental health through developing your self-concept.

At ACTVoices we can help you with your self-esteem and self-efficacy. As you grow in these two areas, you are building your self-concept – an accurate self concept. Contact Us now. 

 

© TIRZAH LIM 2017

Grow In A ‘Learning Community’ Part 1

Build Your Self Concept and Improve Your Mental Health – Collaboration

Community concept - pictogram showing figures happy family

Improve your mental health as you focus on building your socio-emotional wellbeing, which includes developing your self-concept. Self-esteem and self-efficacy are just the foundations. You can actively improve your mental health by growing in a ‘learning community’.

Self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept

What is your self concept? 

~ A combo of self-esteem and self-efficacy. 

~ Belief about yourself. 

~ A factual description of how you perceive yourself, whether it may be true or not. 

~ If your perception is distorted, this description may not be an accurate depiction of you, but it IS an accurate statement of what you believe about yourself.

REFLECT… Write down your perceptions of yourself.
REFLECT… Now write down a factual description of yourself.

Color handprint background concept, human hand print illustration for kid education, school learning or diverse community help. EPS10 vector.

Grow in your ‘learning community’. 

What you can do to build your self-concept

To grow in a ‘learning community’ work on 2 major skills… 

~ Collaboration. 

~ Reflective practice.

 

Macro photo of tooth wheel mechanism with COLLABORATION, EXCHANGE, TRUST, ASSIST, GOAL, SUCCESS and INSPIRATION concept words

To develop your self concept, COLLABORATE! 

Build and grow in a ‘learning community’. 

You can’t grow alone, so gather people around you to learn from and who can pour into your life. They also need your wisdom and life experiences, and so you can fill them up. 

REFLECT… Who will you include in your ‘community’? Who will you exclude from your ‘community?
Building a ‘learning community’ includes 4 ingredients… 

Grunge black encourage word round rubber seal stamp on white background1. Encouraging, supporting and being there for each other. 

To be there for your family includes encouraging, supporting and being there for one another to help each other learn, develop, and grow. To be there for your ‘community’, who is also learning and growing with you also entails encouraging, supporting, and being present for each other. 

REFLECT… As I asked before, who will you exclude from your ‘learning community’? This is an important question that you need to clarify so you can learn more, develop wider and grow further.

Feedback Constructive Insightful Actionable Puzzle 3d Illustration2. Engaging in honest and constructive feedback. 

You need people in your life to be honest with you. To tell you what you don’t want to hear to help you grow. To give you reflective insights about your life to help you self-reflect, and change things in your life. 

REFLECT… What honest feedback can you give yourself?
REFLECT… What feedback can you give someone in your ‘learning community’ to help them develop in their skills – to grow in some area of their life? 
As you do this, you will help each other develop accurate beliefs about yourselves (ie. your self-concept).

Business Team Success, Achievement Concept. Flat People Characters with Prize, Golden Cup. Office Workers Celebrating with Big Trophy. Vector illustration3. Celebrating success in its many forms – small and big wins, stepping stones and just each other. 

Just as we celebrate children’s birthdays, performances or participation in concerts, when they win a competition, when they get the award for being the best helper and the award for the highest marks, we need to celebrate the people in our ‘community’ and celebrate together with them.

We need to celebrate the people in our ‘learning community’ and celebrate with themDon’t forget to celebrate each other… just because! 

Do you really need to have a reason? 

But, if you do need a reason, then celebrate… 

~ The successful performance, engagement and participation on that last outing or work meeting. 

~ The routine that you got through without screaming, crying, getting angry. 

~ Being on time. Getting things done on time. 

~ The new promotion, job, home. 

Whatever is worth being celebrated, big or small… share it with your ‘community’. Let them share in your joy.

REFLECT… When was the last time you celebrated someone or something with your ‘community’? Isn’t it about time you celebrated yourself and/or others for the big and small things you have achieved? When will you start?
REFLECT… Remember, your ‘community of learners’ does not include your children. It is your ‘learning community’ where you and others learn from, support and help each other; and grow and CELEBRATE one another… together.

Handwriting text writing Don t not Compare Yourself To Others. Concept meaning Be your own version unique original Megaphone loudspeaker screaming turquoise background frame speech bubble.
4
. Avoiding comparisons.

Each person comes with their own gifts, talents and character traits that bring with it amazing results and influence, whether big or small, and leaves short and long term effects. You don’t need to compare yourself to others because you were made for different plans and purposes in life.

REFLECT… The last point in building your ‘learning community’. Comparison can be a killer. A killer of joy, perspective, reality. Make sure, you stay joyful, maintain the right and correct perspective and reality, not a distorted perception of yourself or your achievements.

You may look the same, do the same things, have the same goals. BUT… each of you have been made for different plans and purposes. Run your own race and run it with all your heart! Remember, it’s not how much, how high, how long… it’s the heart and how much of your heart you have put into what you do.

REFLECT… Don’t get side tracked from your goals, plans and purposes by looking left and right at what others are doing, have achieved or are pursuing. Keep looking ahead and continue to work towards your goals, plans and purposes.

“Comparison is the thief of joy and the stretcher of truth. Comparison says, “I am ill-equipped for the task at hand.” The truth is God has given me everything I need for the plans he has set before me”. (Unknown source/author).

REFLECT… Keep your joy and peace by minding your own business. What I mean is, looking after and ‘minding’/taking care of your own life, goals, plans.
Don’t mind the ‘business’ of what another person is doing, has done, looks like etc. Avoid comparing yourself.

As we find our confidence in other people’s approval rather than finding it in God, we are comparing ourselves. “God created us all for a distinct purpose. When we have confidence in our God-given purpose we don’t feel the need to compare ourselves to others or seek their approval”. (Unknown source/author).

REFLECT… Do I need to add anymore? Except to say, remember, don’t compare yourself to others. When you don’t compare then you are building an accurate self concept that will lead to a better, more positive mental health.

Paper doll people holding hands

Remember, to develop your self concept grow in your ‘learning community’. 

To do this, work on 2 major skills…

~ Collaboration: Is about building and growing in your ‘learning community’. 

~ Reflective practice: Is about maintaining the growth of the ‘community’ and growing further through reflection.

To read about this second major skill, click here

© TIRZAH LIM 2017

Grow In A ‘Learning Community’ Part 2

Build Your Self Concept and Improve Your Mental Health – Reflective Practice

Creative business team stacking hands together in office

Remember, to develop your self concept grow in your ‘learning community’. To do this, work on 2 major skills…

~ Collaboration: Is about growing in your ‘learning community’. (To read about this again, click here)

~ Reflective practice: Is about maintaining the growth of the ‘community’ and growing further through reflection.

FORGOT WHAT YOUR SELF-CONCEPT IS? Click here.  

Grow in your ‘learning community’. 

Paper people on the grey wooden background

In this post, we look at the second way to grow in your ‘learning community’ that will help you build an accurate self-concept, which helps improve your mental health.

You can’t grow alone, so gather people around you to learn from and who can pour into your life. They also need your wisdom and life experiences, and so you can fill them up. 

REFLECT word written on wooden

To develop your self concept, engage in REFLECTIVE PRACTICE

This incorporates holistic reflection, and includes both self-reflection and collaborative reflection.

Business Concept writing SELF REFLECTION on Blackboard SELF-REFLECTION

Reflecting by yourself, about yourself

AND a specific environment. 

AND the people affected or involved.

Concept of sharing skills to find a solution, with two men face to face who collaborate to find an idea.COLLABORATIVE RELFECTION

 Reflecting together with the people in your ‘learning community’ about yourself.

AND a specific environment. 

AND the people affected or involved.

Building a ‘learning community’ through reflective practice includes reflecting on yourself AND the environment AND others in combination with each other. 

Holistic reflection is important because people AND the environment AND others affected or involved are INTERRELATED and each has an effect on the other. One area alone cannot be interpreted or changed without having an influence on another area. Thus, you need to reflect alone and with others, so you can take the perspective of and understand all 3 areas.

 

*To develop your self concept, engage in REFLECTIVE PRACTICE!

This includes, HOLISTIC REFLECTION. Holistic reflection is important because you AND the environment AND others affected/involved are INTERRELATED and each has an effect on the other.

One area alone cannot be interpreted or changed without having an influence on another area.

Thus, you need to reflect alone and with others, so you can take the perspective of and understand all 3 areas.

 

*When you engage in holistic reflection, you will get transformational change.

This includes… ~Changing the culture of the setting (e.g. home, work).

~Influencing, pervading, and positively transforming every area.

It is a change that… ~ Is long lasting. ~ Takes place over a period of time. >>>>So, how do you get transformational change?

 

*To get transformational change and develop your self concept,

Engage in holistic reflection through SELF REFLECTION AND COLLABORATIVE REFLECTION

To facilitate any kind of change: observe, interpret and reflect .

 

Man's hand with concept of new or next normal digital transform in industry business, disrupt from coronavirus, covid crisis impact to small business or SME. Turn to next normal in financial concept.

 

When you engage in holistic reflection, you will get transformational change.

 

 

Holistic reflection of you…

AND the environment. (E.g., the work/classroom/home environment).

AND the people affected or involved in your life, your ‘learning community’ and/or in that particular environment .

To facilitate any kind of change: observe, interpret and reflect .

Reflection… observe, interpret and reflect.

REFLECTING TO…

~ Enable you to look back, reassess and understand actions, words and behaviour.

~ Identify ways to improve and how to do it differently.

~ Provide clarity, new perspectives and possibilities for the future.

REFLECT…What do You Want to Change words letter, written on paper, work desk top view. Motivational business typography quotes concept

You?

Aspects of your environment?

Culture, interactions in your enviro?

People?

When you reflect (self and collaborative), you are initiating and inspiring transformational change.

This results in changing the setting’s (e.g., home/work) culture. In doing so, influencing, pervading, and positively transforming every area including you AND the environment AND other people.

It is a change that is long lasting and takes place over a period of time.

Transformational change allows for personal growth. Growth that will empower you. Empowerment to use your ‘voice’ and have your ‘voice’ heard. Empowerment to overcome challenges encountered with more skill and knowledge.

RELATIONSHIPS
Developing relationship concept: Construction machines building up with letters the word relationship, isolated on white background.

If you want to change things, change people, change you THEN… focus on relationships. Relationships with children, with colleagues with families/carers, with people in your ‘learning community’. 

Form genuine relationships built on sincerity, respect, kindness and care, and the door is open for change to occur.

REFLECT… Which relationships are important to you? Why?
REFLECT… Which relationships do you want to change? What changes do you want to see?
REFLECT… Do you need to change? Or does the other person need to change? Or do both of you need to change?
IT IS ALL INTERRELATED AND BI-DIRECTIONAL

merger icon, illustration, concept vector template Teachers AND children have an impact on each other, as does parents/carers AND children. 

ALSO the environment (emotional, organisational and physical) have an impact on teachers/children, as well as parents/children. 

So, if you change any one of these areas it will have an effect on the other.

REFLECT… What do you want? What do you want to change? 

Once you have clarified what you want and what you want to change, then you can seek help, support and information. Then you will see change start to occur.

REFLECT… Observe, interpret, reflect on each of the 3 areas and their interaction with one another.

How do you, the environment, and the people affected or involved interact with each other?

~ THEN make changes in one area, and observe the changes, interpret, and reflect how it is impacting on the other 2 areas.

~ THEN take the perspective of another area AND ‘observe-interpret-reflect’ again.

~ Repeat the process with the 3rd area. 

© TIRZAH LIM 2017

What Do All These ‘Self’ Words Mean?

The following ‘self’ words are all important in contributing to a growing positive wellbeing and identity – The foundations for life.

To shape a confident IDENTITY, you need to…
To build your EMOTIONAL WELLBEING, through developing a high…
Self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept
Self-esteem

~ Also known as self-worth and self-value, self-esteem incorporates feelings of self-worth and value .

~ An overall evaluation of oneself.

~ High self-esteem is having a good self image. Ie. self-esteem is like a mirror where you see your own qualities.

~ Low self-esteem is not realising one’s potential, which translates to poor self-confidence.

~ To develop self-esteem limit negative self-talk, self-criticism and labels. Increase focus on strengths, rather than weaknesses.

 

Self-confidence

~ Belief in one’s self-worth and likelihood in succeeding.

 

Self esteem is a permanent internal feeling while self efficacy is a feeling that depends upon the performance at hand.

 

Self-efficacy

~ Belief in one’s capacity or competence to handle, perform and succeed at tasks.

~ Eg. completing a puzzle, dressing independently, studying. Self-efficacy varies from one situation/activity to another.

~ It builds up as you go on learning and mastering different abilities in life.

~ To encourage self-efficacy skills allow them to make decisions for themselves and include them in decision-making with you.

 

Self-concept

~ Belief about oneself.

~ Is a factual description of how you perceive yourself, whether it may be true or not.

~ If your perception is distorted, this description may not be an accurate depiction of you, but it IS an accurate statement of what you believe about yourself.

~ People with a good self-esteem and self-efficacy are often able to recognize their limitations without a judgment attached.

YOU CAN HAVE A GOOD SENSE OF SELF-EFFICACY BUT LOW SELF-ESTEEM.

It is possible to have low self-esteem and yet have high self-efficacy, often seen with perfectionists.

Ie. Someone may tend to be overly-critical and negative about oneself and yet see themselves as quite capable in certain areas.

For instance, they might see themselves as uninteresting and unlikeable but see themselves as a competent speller.

But the first step you need to take is FINDING YOUR ‘VOICE’, that is, feeling empowered to speak up.

This will heighten your view of yourself, knowing that you can and do make a difference. This empowered voice will show you that your voice is valued. This voice developing your self-worth/esteem (Read above about this concept).

STEP 1 – A VOICE HEARD

Empowering Children’s, Parents’ and Teachers’ Voices

Being listened to, respected and valued

STEP 2 – A STRONG EMOTIONAL WELLBEING

Building One’s Emotional Wellbeing

High self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept

STEP 3 – A CONFIDENT SELF-IDENTITY

Shaping Children’s Identity

I accept myself for ‘who I am’

Then we have… Strengthened Foundations

 

If you want to make a change and clearly know who you are and why you are here,  or if you want to deal with your mental health, or if you just want to know more, contact us.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

Why Talk? – How You Can Improve Self-Regulation Skills

Talking and the Link with Self-Regulation Skills… That Empowers Children’s Voice

Self-Regulation Skills….

Self-regulation skills are an important developmental skill that has an accumulating influence and effect on various areas of children’s development, including their self-esteem and self-worth, which builds their social-emotional wellbeing and self-identity.

By empowering children with their voice through facilitating intentional talk and conversational opportunities, this stimulates their growth of self-regulatory skills. It also supports their literacy and language development, among other developmental areas.

The Importance of Intentional Talk and Conversations

WHY TALK?

~ When children utilise expressive/verbal language skills, they learn about sentence structure, meaning of words in context, turn-taking in conversation and pragmatics (3).

      • These skills are the foundation of other language forms and development, including reading and writing.
      • The best way to learn these skills is through talking, particularly intentional and conversational talk.

~ When children have higher emotional self-regulatory skills, this allows them to understand societal rules and behaviour, which leads them to monitoring their own actions (1).

      • This takes children to the level of internalising their self-regulation, which is what we want for all children’s self-regulation skills to reach.
      • However, before reaching the point they can internalise their self-regulation, children are externally regulating their emotions (2).
      • This means they need adult support to help them to self-regulate (2).
          • Teachers can facilitate this area of development through various means such as the following strategies.

* HOW TO PROMOTE & SUPPORT INTENTIONAL TALK

Engage WITH children in the following experiences:

~ Narrative and play literacy experiences, combined with drama elements for extension. Eg. improvisation, storytelling and puppetry.

~ Sociodramatic play with teachers and peers.

~ Process drama

      • Teachers use a teacher-in-role (TIR) technique to begin a drama/sociodramatic experience. They adopt a submissive role, then during the experience they work alongside the children – questioning, encouraging, developing and/or steering the drama while remaining in-role.
      • E.g. The teacher could be the new fire-fighter en-route to an emergency with the ‘expert’ children fire-fighters.

~ Ask open-ended, thought-provoking / inquiry-based questions, rather than close-ended questions.

* HOW TO PROMOTE & SUPPORT CONVERSATIONAL TALK

INITIATE conversations and/or ENGAGE IN conversations with children.

~ At mealtimes – Have conversations about what they are eating and extend on it by talking about what they like to eat. Other topics to talk about that go beyond the present include, what they enjoyed doing during the day, what they did yesterday or what they will do over the weekend, and how’s their day going (reflecting on their feelings and thoughts of the day).

~ When children need a break, because they are getting a bit too energetic, break up the day with some ‘quiet time’.

      • ‘Quiet time’ is a time where children can get into small groups in a relaxed mood/setting, and have little conversations – recalling past events, predicting future events (such as what they will do tomorrow or on their planned holiday) and/or narrating imagined stories to each other.
So why all this talking? What’s really taking place?

When Children Talk Beyond Their Immediate Context They…

~ Develop ‘decontextualised language’. That is, they talk about and explain events in the past and future, which allows them to wonder and imagine about ideas.

~ Develop their verbal language skills and increase their vocabulary.

~ Develop skills that will contribute later to their writing, both for creative and more formal purposes.

~ When children narrate stories and love to have ‘chats’, they also develop more self-confidence as they learn more social skills and grow in their social-emotional skills and wellbeing (3).

~ Use higher-level thinking skills such as, suggestions and prediction as they answer open-ended questions posed to them. This sparks curiosity that contributes to their cognitive development (4).

When Teachers Have Conversations & Talk With Children… (3)

~ Teachers can model language, including grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary.

~ Teachers can model self-regulatory processing skills.

~ Children learn empathy as they see others have different thoughts, feelings and experiences than themselves.

~ Children develop a sense of belonging and being as they develop trusting relationships with adults and peers through the conversations they have with each other. This all contributes to more self-confidence and positive social-emotional wellbeing.

As a result, children are empowered with their voice! They use their voice/words to speak out, and in doing so, are empowered and realise that their voice can and has the right to be listened to and respected by both their peers and adults.

 

To read more about how to use language as a means to promote self-regulatory skills through other areas in the program, how it supports the growth in other areas of development, and to know more benefits beyond those listed here, refer to the reading by:

(3) Test J.E., Cunningham, D.D., & Lee, A.C. (2010). Talking with young children: How teachers encourage learning. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 38(3), 3-14. From: http://southernearlychildhood.org/upload/pdf/Talking_With_Young_Children.pdf

 

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

(1) Willis, E., & Dinehart, L.H. (2014). Contemplative practices in early childhood: Implications for self-regulation skills and school readiness. Early Child Development and Care, 184(4),487-499. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2013.804069

(2) Bodrova & Leong, 2007; Dawson & Guare, 2010, as cited in Willis & Dinehart (2014).

(4) A study by Weitzman & Greenberg, 2002, as cited in Test, Cunningham, & Lee (2010).

© Tirzah Lim 2017

How Does Children’s Behaviour Affect Teachers’ Wellbeing?

The Bi-Directional Link Between Children’s and Teachers’ Wellbeing

From extensive research in brain development, it has been conclusive that early childhood experiences are vital in developing well established children for the future with positive life outcomes. In particular these experiences affect children’s physical health, social and emotional wellbeing later in life (1,4,8).

Even more, the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) and the National Quality Framework (NQF) have acknowledged this position and has placed a focused emphasis on the role early childhood practitioners (ECPs) have in understanding and supporting the development of the social wellbeing of children through the relationships they build with both the child and their family (3).

 

Children’s mental health issues contribute to ECPs’ own emotional health and wellbeing.

It has been found that mental health issues, in particular oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety and depression are among the most commonly diagnosed mental health conditions in childhood (5,6,7).

In all cases of children’s mental health and wellbeing, it commonly presents itself through behaviour – positive, negative, or even hidden/silent behaviour, which means something.

  • In these cases, it has been found that supporting children in the class who experience more emotional and/or behavioural difficulties, is often aligned to ECPs’ stress levels. In turn, contributing to ECPs’ own emotional wellbeing (4,6).
    • ECP wellbeing has flow on effects in the relationships they form with children, the way they interact with them and react to their behaviour.
    • ECP wellbeing will also have an influence on the relationships they develop with families.

This raises important issues for the early childhood field and for ECPs in understanding their role in supporting the development of positive emotional wellbeing of all children. This includes being equipped with the knowledge of the importance of emotional wellbeing in children’s development. It also involves the responsibility in understanding what ECPs can do to support children and their families/family members who may be experiencing mental health issues.

IMPLICATIONS FOR ECPs

ECPs have a responsibility to establish partnerships and collaboratively work with families.

In the study undertaken by Williams, Sanchez, and Hunnell (2011), they discuss the positive outcomes when there are partnerships between families and education organisations.

They base their study around the concept of an ecological approach, which emphasises four principles that are also relevant to the early childhood context. Two of the most important and interrelated of these being discussed below: interdependence and interpersonal relationships, both of which are also related to developing partnerships with families.

  • To be able to cater for their present needs and to provide effective learning experiences, is to understand children and their past experiences (2). This entails nurturing and growing interdependent relationships with families. It is when families and teachers work hand-in-hand with the unique knowledge they have of the child from each of their contexts (i.e. the home and early childhood service).
  • Instead of the main reason for conversing with families to be negative feedback, such as discussing problematic issues, challenging behaviour, or mishaps that have occurred during the day; when partnerships are focused on the interpersonal relationship it becomes stronger. As a result, there will be more benefits for all involved .
    • Partnerships that are focused on interpersonal relationships create more positive, trusted, and effective relationships.
    • This leads to families being more involved in their children’s education that works towards inclusive practices, while also supporting teachers.
    • In particular, children’s behaviour was more effectively supported, which in turn reduced teacher stress and supported their emotional-wellbeing.

 

REFERENCES

(1) Brown, W.H. & Conroy, M.A. (2011). Social-emotional competence in young children with developmental delays: Our reflection and vision for the future. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 310-320.

(2) Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR]. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Retrieved from http://education.gov.au/early-yearslearning-framework

(3) Gloeckler, L. & Cassell, J. (2012). Teacher practices with toddlers during social problem solving opportunities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(4), 251-257.

(4) Green, B.L., Malsch, A.M., Kothari, B.H. Busse, J. & Brennan, E. (2012). An intervention to increase early childhood staff capacity for promoting children’s social-emotional development in preschool settings. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(2), 123-132.

(5) Hamilton, S.S. & Armando, J. (2008). Oppositional defiant disorder. American Family Physician, 78(7), 861-866.

(6) Matthys, W., Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J., Schutter, D.J.L.G. & Lochman, J.E. (2012). Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Implications for interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15(3), 234-246.

(7) Nordahl, H.M., Well, A., Olsson, C.A. & Bjerkeset, O. (2010). Association between abnormal psychosocial situations in childhood, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(9), 852-858.

(8) Temple, E. & Emmett, S. (2013). Promoting the development of children’s emotional and social wellbeing in early childhood settings: How can we enhance the capability of educators to fulfil role expectations? Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(1), 66-72.

(9) Williams T.T., Sanchez, B., & Hunnell, J. (2011). Aligning theory and practice: Understanding school-family partnerships at an inner-city high school. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(5), 689-697.

© Tirzah Lim 2017