What Do All These ‘Self’ Words Mean?

The following ‘self’ words are all important in contributing to a growing positive wellbeing and identity – The foundations for life.

To shape a confident IDENTITY, you need to…
To build your EMOTIONAL WELLBEING, through developing a high…
Self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept

~ Also known as self-worth and self-value, self-esteem incorporates feelings of self-worth and value .

~ An overall evaluation of oneself.

~ High self-esteem is having a good self image. Ie. self-esteem is like a mirror where you see your own qualities.

~ Low self-esteem is not realising one’s potential, which translates to poor self-confidence.

~ To develop self-esteem limit negative self-talk, self-criticism and labels. Increase focus on strengths, rather than weaknesses.



~ Belief in one’s self-worth and likelihood in succeeding.


Self esteem is a permanent internal feeling while self efficacy is a feeling that depends upon the performance at hand.



~ Belief in one’s capacity or competence to handle, perform and succeed at tasks.

~ Eg. completing a puzzle, dressing independently, studying. Self-efficacy varies from one situation/activity to another.

~ It builds up as you go on learning and mastering different abilities in life.

~ To encourage self-efficacy skills allow them to make decisions for themselves and include them in decision-making with you.



~ Belief about oneself.

~ Is a factual description of how you perceive yourself, whether it may be true or not.

~ If your perception is distorted, this description may not be an accurate depiction of you, but it IS an accurate statement of what you believe about yourself.

~ People with a good self-esteem and self-efficacy are often able to recognize their limitations without a judgment attached.


It is possible to have low self-esteem and yet have high self-efficacy, often seen with perfectionists.

Ie. Someone may tend to be overly-critical and negative about oneself and yet see themselves as quite capable in certain areas.

For instance, they might see themselves as uninteresting and unlikeable but see themselves as a competent speller.

But the first step you need to take is FINDING YOUR ‘VOICE’, that is, feeling empowered to speak up.

This will heighten your view of yourself, knowing that you can and do make a difference. This empowered voice will show you that your voice is valued. This voice developing your self-worth/esteem (Read above about this concept).


Empowering Children’s, Parents’ and Teachers’ Voices

Being listened to, respected and valued


Building One’s Emotional Wellbeing

High self-esteem + self-efficacy = Accurate self-concept


Shaping Children’s Identity

I accept myself for ‘who I am’

Then we have… Strengthened Foundations


If you want to make a change and clearly know who you are and why you are here,  or if you want to deal with your mental health, or if you just want to know more, contact us.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

Why Talk? – How You Can Improve Self-Regulation Skills

Talking and the Link with Self-Regulation Skills… That Empowers Children’s Voice

Self-Regulation Skills….

Self-regulation skills are an important developmental skill that has an accumulating influence and effect on various areas of children’s development, including their self-esteem and self-worth, which builds their social-emotional wellbeing and self-identity.

By empowering children with their voice through facilitating intentional talk and conversational opportunities, this stimulates their growth of self-regulatory skills. It also supports their literacy and language development, among other developmental areas.

The Importance of Intentional Talk and Conversations


~ When children utilise expressive/verbal language skills, they learn about sentence structure, meaning of words in context, turn-taking in conversation and pragmatics (3).

      • These skills are the foundation of other language forms and development, including reading and writing.
      • The best way to learn these skills is through talking, particularly intentional and conversational talk.

~ When children have higher emotional self-regulatory skills, this allows them to understand societal rules and behaviour, which leads them to monitoring their own actions (1).

      • This takes children to the level of internalising their self-regulation, which is what we want for all children’s self-regulation skills to reach.
      • However, before reaching the point they can internalise their self-regulation, children are externally regulating their emotions (2).
      • This means they need adult support to help them to self-regulate (2).
          • Teachers can facilitate this area of development through various means such as the following strategies.


Engage WITH children in the following experiences:

~ Narrative and play literacy experiences, combined with drama elements for extension. Eg. improvisation, storytelling and puppetry.

~ Sociodramatic play with teachers and peers.

~ Process drama

      • Teachers use a teacher-in-role (TIR) technique to begin a drama/sociodramatic experience. They adopt a submissive role, then during the experience they work alongside the children – questioning, encouraging, developing and/or steering the drama while remaining in-role.
      • E.g. The teacher could be the new fire-fighter en-route to an emergency with the ‘expert’ children fire-fighters.

~ Ask open-ended, thought-provoking / inquiry-based questions, rather than close-ended questions.


INITIATE conversations and/or ENGAGE IN conversations with children.

~ At mealtimes – Have conversations about what they are eating and extend on it by talking about what they like to eat. Other topics to talk about that go beyond the present include, what they enjoyed doing during the day, what they did yesterday or what they will do over the weekend, and how’s their day going (reflecting on their feelings and thoughts of the day).

~ When children need a break, because they are getting a bit too energetic, break up the day with some ‘quiet time’.

      • ‘Quiet time’ is a time where children can get into small groups in a relaxed mood/setting, and have little conversations – recalling past events, predicting future events (such as what they will do tomorrow or on their planned holiday) and/or narrating imagined stories to each other.
So why all this talking? What’s really taking place?

When Children Talk Beyond Their Immediate Context They…

~ Develop ‘decontextualised language’. That is, they talk about and explain events in the past and future, which allows them to wonder and imagine about ideas.

~ Develop their verbal language skills and increase their vocabulary.

~ Develop skills that will contribute later to their writing, both for creative and more formal purposes.

~ When children narrate stories and love to have ‘chats’, they also develop more self-confidence as they learn more social skills and grow in their social-emotional skills and wellbeing (3).

~ Use higher-level thinking skills such as, suggestions and prediction as they answer open-ended questions posed to them. This sparks curiosity that contributes to their cognitive development (4).

When Teachers Have Conversations & Talk With Children… (3)

~ Teachers can model language, including grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary.

~ Teachers can model self-regulatory processing skills.

~ Children learn empathy as they see others have different thoughts, feelings and experiences than themselves.

~ Children develop a sense of belonging and being as they develop trusting relationships with adults and peers through the conversations they have with each other. This all contributes to more self-confidence and positive social-emotional wellbeing.

As a result, children are empowered with their voice! They use their voice/words to speak out, and in doing so, are empowered and realise that their voice can and has the right to be listened to and respected by both their peers and adults.


To read more about how to use language as a means to promote self-regulatory skills through other areas in the program, how it supports the growth in other areas of development, and to know more benefits beyond those listed here, refer to the reading by:

(3) Test J.E., Cunningham, D.D., & Lee, A.C. (2010). Talking with young children: How teachers encourage learning. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 38(3), 3-14. From: http://southernearlychildhood.org/upload/pdf/Talking_With_Young_Children.pdf



(1) Willis, E., & Dinehart, L.H. (2014). Contemplative practices in early childhood: Implications for self-regulation skills and school readiness. Early Child Development and Care, 184(4),487-499. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2013.804069

(2) Bodrova & Leong, 2007; Dawson & Guare, 2010, as cited in Willis & Dinehart (2014).

(4) A study by Weitzman & Greenberg, 2002, as cited in Test, Cunningham, & Lee (2010).

© Tirzah Lim 2017

Taking Care of Teachers’ Emotional Wellbeing

How to Reduce Teacher Stress and Support Children’s Development



To understand the importance of your role as a teacher and leader, you need to see yourself in the mesosystem of a child’s life – that is, in the context of the early childhood (EC) setting.

EC settings along with teachers can either be a ‘protective’ source of support for children or a risk factor that adds to the risks already experienced by children.

To be a support for children, it has been found there are three main protective sources of support in EC settings that have a major positive influence on teacher stress. The reduction in teacher stress influencing, among other areas, class management and behaviour management.

On the other end, teacher stress is also a major contributing factor on children’s self-regulatory skills. When these skills are supported positively and effectively, it has long term effects on early school achievement and success.


Protective Factor 1: Teacher quality that translates to child-centred beliefs

Protective Factor 2: Engagement and Classroom Climate

Protective Factor 3: Teacher-Child Relationships

Protective Factor 1: Teacher quality that translates to child-centred beliefs

  1. Classroom decisions – Collaborative learning and child autonomy.
  2. Curriculum decisions – Promote literacy, intentional talk and conversations, and socio-dramatic play.

Protective Factor 2: Engagement and Classroom Climate

  1. Engagement with teachers, classroom activities, and the class.
  2. Classroom climate – Emotional and organisational support.

Protective Factor 3: Teacher-Child Relationships

  • Is interrelated to the other two factors by influencing and being influenced by teacher quality and child-centred beliefs, as well as engagement and classroom climate.
When supporting children of higher self-regulatory processing skills, this will EMPOWER the ‘voices’ of the children, thereby BUILD a stronger emotional wellbeing, and SHAPE a confident identity.

If you want to know more “Contact Me” and I will email you my powerpoint presentation.

It will explain more about each of the points outlined above, including HOW TO promote and facilitate these practices.

© Tirzah Lim 2017

What Happens When You Empower Your Team With A Voice?

Ethical Leadership and Change

What’s the difference between a manager and a leader?

What’s the difference between leading ethically and unethically?

Why ARE these two concepts important to understand when we want to initiate some type of change?

That is, CHANGE TO  support…

  • The team of teachers to heighten their teaching quality.
  • Children and better understanding their behaviours.
  • Families and stronger collaborative relationships.
  • Yourself to empower your ‘voice’ and support your social-emotional wellbeing.

These are some of the issues that will be discussed in my powerpoint article:

  • Ethical leadership and your choice of the ‘power approach’.
  • Benefits of ethical leadership to team members, such as a stronger socio-emotional wellbeing for all (including for leaders, teachers and children), and an empowerment of everyone’s ‘voice’.
  • Acceptance of change, the culture you develop, wellbeing and the link with the empowerment of ‘voices’.


Who does IT start with?

(‘IT’ = change, improvement, ethical role modelling, transformative leadership, building of emotional wellbeing, empowering of ‘voices’, etc…)

The Director / Manager?

The Teachers / Team?

The Families?


The Community?

If you want to know more, “Contact Me” and I will email you my powerpoint article.

It will explain more about each of the points outlined above and how you can EMPOWER everyone’s ‘voice’.

© Tirzah Lim 2017